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--CONTENTS download-- (PDF file 10kB)- List of Papers Published on Web
--CONTENTS download-- (PDF file 9kB)- List of Papers Published on Web
--CONTENTS download-- (PDF file 12kB)- List of Papers Published on Web
(The following papers were posted here on March 31,2000.)
*Review papers based on the plenary or invited lectures presented in the 43rd Symposium
on Radiochemistry in Tsukuba on October 13-15, 1999.
[Review] R. M. Lindstrom and R. R. Greenberg; Accuracy and Uncertainty in Radiochemical Measurements: Learning from Errors in Nuclear Analytical Chemistry, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 2(1-2), 2001.
A characteristic that sets radioactivity measurements apart from most spectrometries is that the precision of a single determination can be estimated from Poisson statistics. This easily calculated counting uncertainty permits the detection of other sources of uncertainty by comparing observed with a priori precision. A good way to test the many underlying assumptions in radiochemical measurements is to strive for high accuracy. For example, a measurement by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of gold film thickness in our laboratory revealed the need for pulse pileup correction even at modest dead times. Recently, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and other international bodies have formalized the quantitative determination and statement of uncertainty so that the weaknesses of each measurement are exposed for improvement. In the INAA certification measurement of ion-implanted arsenic in silicon (Standard Reference Material 2134), we recently achieved an expanded (95 % confidence) relative uncertainty of 0.38 % for 90 ng of arsenic per sample. A complete quantitative error analysis was performed. This measurement meets the CCQM definition of a primary ratio method.
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[Review] R. H. Herber; Atomic and Molecular Motion in Iron Organometallics, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 2(1-2), 2001.
Temperature-dependent 57Fe Mossbauer effect studies have been carried out on organge needle-shaped crystals of acetyl ferrocene over the range 90≦T≦350 K in an effort to elucidate the motional behavior of the metal atom up to temperatures near the melting point (359K). The spectra consist of one well resolved doublet at all temperatures, with an isomer shift of 0.554 ± 0.002 and 0.438 ± 0.001 mm s-1 at 90 and 298 K, respectively. The temperature dependence of the isomer shift corresponds to an effective vibrating mass of 74 ± 2 daltons, and, in conjunction with the temperature dependence of the recoil-free fraction, to a Mossbauer lattice temperature of 134 K. There is a small but significant vibrational anisotropy of the metal atom motion evident in the spectroscopic data above ~ 200 K.
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[Review]W. Haifang, L. Yuanfang, and S. Hongfangand; Applications of 14C-AMS for Carcinogen, Pharmaceutical and Nutrient Studies, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 2(1-2), 2001.
Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an ultrasensitive measure for tracing 14C labeled molecules in vivo or detecting the biomarker for assessment of carcinogenesis. Basic principles, wide applications and new progresses of bio-14C- AMS have been presented. It is a state-of-the-art tool for measuring the adduction of biological molecules with xenobiotics, including carcinogens, drugs, agrochemicals, nicotine etc.. We have studied the genotoxi-city and proteins adduction of smoking specific nicotine and its nitrosamine derivative NNK since 1994. The successful applications have proven the effectiveness of AMS in assessment of cancer risk, screening of drug toxi-city and studies of nutrient uptake. In particular, AMS is characterized by measuring xenobiotics at very low dose levels relevant to human environmental exposure. It is sensitive and precise to an attomole (10－18 mole) of 14C per mg carbon. Although it has some shortcomings, undoubtedly, AMS possesses an evident merit of high sensitivity and will have widespread applications in the biomedical sciences.
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[Review] H. Kudo; The Nature of Bonding of Hyperlithiated Molecules Beyond the Octet Rule, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 2(1-2), 2001.
Following an overview on the nature of bonding of such hypervalent molecules as LinA (Li6C, Li3O, Li4O, Li3S, Li4S, Li4P) and M2CN (M = Li, Na, K), the present paper deals with the molecular and electronic structures of newly found lithium-rich Li2F and Li2OH molecules as well as Li2Fn-1 (n = 3, 4) and Lin(OH)n-1( n = 3 - 5 ) clusters which have been detected in supersonic beams effusing from a laser ablation source. The ionization energies (IEs) determined by photoionization were 3.78 ± 0.2 eV for Li2F, 4.32 ± 0.2 eV for Li3F2, and 4.30 ± 0.2 eV for Li4F3. Agreements of these IEs with theoretical ones calculated by ab initio MO methods support that Li2F is in a hyperlithiated configuration (HLC) in which the excess electron delocalizes over the two lithiums, while Li3F2 and Li4F3 are in a segregated configuration (SC) comprising ionic and non-ionic lithiums resulting from localization of the excess valence electron. Ionization efficiency curves (IECs) measured for Lin(OH)n-1( n = 2 - 5 ) are well reproduced with a simulation involving Franck-Condon factors, and this enabled us to identify the global-minimum structure of these species predicted by theoretical calculations with the DFT method. The IEs determined were 4.053 ± 0.003 eV for Li2OH in HLC, 3.687 ± 0.003 eV for Li3(OH)2 in HLC, 4.133 ± 0.003 eV for Li3(OH)2 in SC, and 3.418 ± 0.009 eV for Li4(OH)3 in SC, and 3.60 ± 0.11 eV for Li5(OH)4 in SC. Also, IE of Li3O was determined as 3.59 ± 0.02 eV from reinvestigation with the photoionization technique. Furthermore, Li3O was found to be a floppy molecule sharing both the D3h and C2v structures from a precise analysis of the observed IEC taking account of the potential energy surface for both neutral and cationic Li3O. This is the first experimental evidence for “electronomers” or electronic isomers of Li3O, which have nearly the same stability but are different in localization of the SOMO. It is eventually stressed that delocalization of the excess valence electron over all of the lithium atoms in a molecule is essential to afford hyperlithiated molecules and that the shape of SOMO or HOMO, which accommodates the excess valence electron or electrons, plays a key role in determining the stability of hyperlithiated molecules.
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[Review] V. P. Shantarovich; Positron Annihilation Study of Polymer Membrane Materials, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 2(1-2), 2001.
Free volume effects are important for positronium formation, pick-off annihilation and chemical reactions. In order to turn positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) measurements into effective tool for quantitative investigations of molecular solids, polymers for example, the relation between the intensity of the long-lived positronium component of lifetime distribution of positron annihilation and concentration of defects (elementary free volumes EFV) has to be derived. This enables not only calculations of the effective size of elementary free volumes but also estimations of the specific free volume. Meanwhile, the studies of EFV in polymer systems are of great interest, because effective sizes and concentrations of EFV determine many transport, mechanical and other prop-erties of polymers. We demonstrate here an approach to the studies of these problems on example of big group of glassy polymers distinguished by a wide range of gas permeability P (1-104 Barrer) and selectivity. They are used therefore as good gas-separating membrane materials.
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[Article] Y. Sakai, M.K. Kubo, C. Yonezawa, H. Matsue, and M. Jimbo; Determination of Degradation Constants of Energetic 7*Li Ion in Liquid Media Using a Thin Boron Film on Silicon Wafer, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 2(1-2), 2001.
A novel method to determine degradation constants has been developed for energetic 7*Li ions produced from the 10B ( n,α ) 7*Li reaction, moving in liquid media. The energetic 7*Li generated in a thin boron film on silicon wafer plunged into a liquid sample in which the wafer was immersed. The degradation constants were determined by analyzing the Doppler-broadened lineshapes of prompt γ -ray at 478 keV emitted from 7*Li. For comparison, degradation constants were also measured for solutions of boron compounds. Values obtained by the two methods gave fair agreement.
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[Article]K. Hashimoto, H. Matsuoka, and M. Izumo; Adsorption of 188Re Complexes with Aminomethylenephosphonate on Hydroxyapatite, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 2(1-2), 2001.
The adsorption properties of newly developed 188Re complexes with aminomethylenephosphonate (amp) (EDTMP-Ethylenediamine- N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(methylenephosphonic acid), EDBMP - Ethylenediamine - N,N'-bis(methyl-enephosphonic acid) and NTMP - Nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid)) on hydroxyapatite was investigated. The adsorption of 188Re complexes was strongly affected by pH and ionic strength in a solution. The adsorption coefficient (ml/g), which is defined by the ratio of the concentration of the complex per unit weight of the hydroxyapatite to the concentration in unit volume of the solution, increased with decreasing pH and ionic strength. These observations suggest that one of the causes of the adsorption of 188Re-amp is considered to be the electrostatic forces between the negative 188Re-amp complex and the positive HAP surface. The adsorption affinity of the 188Re-amp complex for HAP increased in the order of 188Re-EDBMP<188Re-NTMP<188Re-EDTMP. Furthermore, the adsorption coefficient of carrier-free 188Re-EDTMP was larger than that of carrier-added one under the same conditions. From a detailed comparison of the effect of the Re carrier concentration on the adsorption coefficient of 188Re-EDTMP with its structural analysis by HPLC, we concluded that the Re carrier effect on the adsorption coefficient was caused by the different distribution of the components in the 188Re-EDTMP mixture between the carrier-free and the carrier-added complex.
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[Article] M. Ying, Y. Kitatsuji, T. Kimura, and Z. Yoshida; Voltammetric Study on Transfer of UO22+ Across the Interface Between Aqueous and Nitrobenzene Solutions in the Presence of Octyl(phenyl)- N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl- methyl- phosphine Oxide (CMPO), J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 2(1-2), 2001.
The characteristics of the phase transfer of UO22+ across aqueous(w)/nitrobenzene(nb) solutions interface in the presence of octyl(phenyl)- N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl- methylphosphine oxide (CMPO) as an ionophore were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (VITIES) and polarography (PITIES) for ion transfer at the interface of two immiscible electrolyte solutions. The transfer of UO22+ from w to nb is remarkably facilitated by CMPO and the ion transfer reaction exhibits an irreversible nature. The rate-determining step of the UO22+ transfer is assigned to adsorption / desorption process of the UO22+ -CMPO complex at the w/nb interface. The ion transfer potential of UO22+ shifts more positively when the two phase system is allowed to stand stationarily for a given time before the measurement of the cyclic voltammogram. The potential shift with the standing time is attributable to a decrease in the interfacial concentration of “free” CMPO due to the protonation of CMPO followed by the accumulation of the ion pair between HCMPO+ and TPhB- at the w/nb interface.
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[Note] J. Sato and M. Endo; Activity Ratios of Uranium Isotopes in Volcanic Rocks from Izu-Mariana Island-Arc Volcanoes, Japan, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 2(1-2), 2001.
The 234U / 238U activity ratios of 45 products from 6 volcanoes of Izu-Mariana island-arc ranged from 0.96 to 1.04, representing a Gaussian distribution with the average value of 0.997 and the standard deviation of 0.014. The result indicates that 234U is in radioactive equilibrium with 238U in the erupting magmas from island-arc volcanoes. Activity Ratios of Uranium Isotopes in Volcanic Rocks from Izu-Mariana Island-Arc Volcanoes, Japan
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[Article] H. Haba, M. Igarashi, K. Washiyama, H. Matsumura, M. Yamashita, K. Sakamoto, Y. Oura, S. Shibata, M. Furukawa, and I. Fujiwara; Photofission of 197Au at Intermediate Energies, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 1(2), 2000.
The reaction yields of 58 radionuclides with the mass number A = 42.131 produced in the photofission of 197Au by bremsstrahlung of end-point energies (E0) from 300 to 1100 MeV have been measured using the catcher foil technique. The reaction yields increase steeply with an increase of E0 up to 600 MeV and increase gradually above 600 MeV, indicating the resonance-type excitation function attributed to the (3,3) resonance. The charge distribution was found to be well reproduced by a Gaussian function with the most probable charge (Zp) expressed by a linear function of A, i.e., Zp = RA + S, and with the A-independent full width at half maximum (FWHMCD). The charge distribution parameters R, S, and FWHMCD were found to be independent of E0 above 600 MeV, reflecting the resonance nature in photonuclear reactions at intermediate energies. The weighted mean values at E0≧600 MeV were R = 0.424 ± 0.001, S = 0.7 ± 0.1, and FWHMCD = 2.2 ± 0.1 charge unit (c.u.). Based on these parameters, the symmetric mass yield distributions with the most probable mass Ap of 92 ± 1 mass unit (m.u.) and the width FWHMMD of 39 ± 1 m.u. were obtained. The characteristics of the charge and mass yield distributions were discussed by referring to the literature data including those of proton-induced reactions.
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[Article] Y. Kino, T. Sekine, Y. Sato, H. Kudo, F. Suekane, A. Suzuki, Y. Ito, and T. Suzuki ; Positron Annihilation in Liquid Scintillator for Electron Antineutrino Detection, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 1(2), 2000.
Positron annihilation processes in a liquid scintillator to be used for the detection of electron antineutrinos in the KamLAND project were studied. The liquid scintillator was a mixture of isoparaffin, pseudocumene and 2,5- diphenyloxazole. We measured positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectra which contained important timing information on identification of the electron antineutrinos. The PAL spectra of a nitrogen-saturated liquid scintillator consisted of three lifetime components. Two fast components with the lifetime of 0.19 ± 0.05 ns and 0.48 ± 0.05 ns correspond to the mixture of para-positronium annihilation and free positron annihilation. The delayed component (3.41 ± 0.02 ns) with the intensity of 48.9 ± 0.3 % is ascribed to pick-off annihilation of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) annihilation. To understand the 2g annihilation processes of o-Ps in the liquid, we examined the effects of dissolved gases (nitrogen, oxygen, helium and argon) and mixing ratio of isoparaffin and pseudocumene which were the main components of the liquid scintillator. The lifetime of o-Ps was drastically shortened in the presence of oxygen, but not for other gases. The reaction rate constant for quenching of o-Ps by oxygen was obtained from the O2 concentration dependence of o-Ps lifetime component. The pick-off annihilation of o-Ps with the liquid scintillator is explained based on the bubble model. We discuss a possible microscopic picture of the surroundings of Ps in the liquid scintillator.
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[Article] H. Haba, M. Igarashi, K. Washiyama, H. Matsumura, M. Yamashita, K. Sakamoto, Y. Oura, S. Shibata, M. Furukawa, and I. Fujiwara; Recoil Properties of Radionuclides Formed in Photonuclear Reactions on 197Au at Intermediate Energies, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 1(2), 2000.
The recoil properties of 37 radionuclides with the mass number A = 24-131 produced in the photonuclear reaction on 197Au by bremsstrahlung of end-point energies (E0) from 300 to 1100 MeV have been investigated using the thick-target thick-catcher method with an aid of intensive chemical separations. The measured mean ranges, FW and BW, in the forward and backward directions, respectively, with respect to the beam axis show E0-independence above 600 MeV, reflecting the resonance character in photonuclear reactions at intermediate energies. The forward-to-backward yield ratios (F/B) are independent of the mass difference ( D A) between a product (A) and the target (At = 197) above D A = 66, and the weighted mean value of F/B = 1.1 ± 0.1 is clearly distinguished from that of photospallation products with D A≦ 45. The F/B ratios of proton-induced reactions at incident proton energies (Ep) of Ep ≦ 3 GeV are higher than those of photon-reactions and decrease with an increase of Ep, but become the same values as the photon-reactions at higher Ep. The mean kinetic energies T of the residual nuclei were deduced based on the two-step vector velocity model. The T values are independent of E0 above 600 MeV and increase with an increase of D A, reflecting the changes in the reaction mechanism from spallation to fission. The T values of photon-reactions at D A > 45 are quite different from those of the proton-reactions, in which the T values decrease with an increase of Ep up to about 3 GeV and become Ep-independent at higher Ep, though the T values of photon-reactions at D A≦ 45 agree well with those of the proton-reactions, irrespectively of Ep. Recoils of 24Na produced from 27Al, natV, natCu, natAg, and 197Au are of special interest from a viewpoint of a change in the production mechanism with respect to At.
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[Article] Y. Yamada ; Mossbauer Study of Iron Iodide Produced by a Reaction of Laser-Evaporated Iron Atoms and Methyl Iodide, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 1(2), 2000.
The reaction products of laser-evaporated iron atoms and methyl iodide CH3I are isolated in low-temperature Ar matrices and their Mossbauer spectra are obtained. The yields of the products vary depending on the concentration of CH3I in the Ar matrix-gas. The Mossbauer parameters suggest that these species that are isolated in matrices are monomeric FeI2 and dimeric Fe2I4, which is confirmed by molecular orbital calculations.
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[Article] K. M. Kumar, R. M. Kadam, A. R. Dhobale, and M. D. Sastry ; Radiation Effects on the Property of 238U(VI) or 239Pu(IV) Doped Polyvinyl Alcohol Films by EPR and PAS, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 1(2), 2000.
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and photoacoustic spectral (PAS) studies were conducted on pure polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film, 238U(VI) doped PVA film after gamma irradiation and 239Pu(IV) doped PVA film after in-situ alpha irradiation. Studies on gamma irradiated U(VI) doped PVA film revealed the formation of U(V) complex and free radical -CH2-C . (OH)CH2-. The later was also formed in pure PVA film. The in-situ alpha-irradiation resulted in a broad line at g = 1.998 ± 0.001 in addition to weak lines due to -C( . O)=CH2- and -CH2- C . (OH)CH2-. The broad line appears to be due to high local concentration of these radicals which increased with longer in-situ irradiation. With long storage, a doublet, presumably due to interaction of -C( . O)=CH2- with I = 1/2 of 239Pu got evolved.
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[Note] K. Takamiya, M. Akamine, S. Shibata, A. Toyoshima, Y. Kasamatsu, and A. Shinohara ; Preparation of Multitracer by Thermal Neutron Fission of 235U, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 1(2), 2000.
Radiochemical procedures for preparing a multitracer using thermal neutron fission of 235U were established. The target material of natUO2 mixed with the catcher material for the fission products was irradiated at the research reactor (KUR) of the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University. After irradiation, the multitracer solution mainly consisting of fission products was prepared by quick removing of the target material. The multitracer enables simultaneous tracing of various elements, and comparison of their chemical behavior under strictly identical experimental conditions.
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[Note] M. K. Kubo and Y. Sakai ; A Simple Derivation of the Formula of the Doppler Brodened 478 keV g -Ray Lineshape from 7*Li and Its Analytical Application, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 1(2), 2000.
A simple and intuitive derivation of the formula describing the Doppler broadened (± 7.6 keV wide)g-ray shape at 478 keV of 7*Li was developed. In application to analysis of PGA spectra of multi-elemental targets, a computer code based on the formula efficiently deconvoluted the 472 keV g -ray from 24Na superposed on the 7*Li line. The code also provided peak areas and the degradation constants of 7*Li in the spectra of samples.
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[Review] K. E. Gregorich and V. Ninov; Superheavy Elements with the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 1(1), 2000.
In April and May of 1999 the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator was used to search for the production and decay of element 118 from the 86Kr + 208Pb reaction, according to Smolanczuk's predictions of relatively large production rates. Three decay chains, each consisting of an implanted heavy ion, followed by a rapid (ms) succession of high-energy (> 10 MeV) alpha-particle decays were detected. These chains are consistent with the production and decay of element 118 with mass number 293. These results a) show experimental evidence for the existence of shell-stabilized superheavy elements, b) provide experimental values for refinement of nuclear mass models in the superheavy element region, and, most importantly, c) present a “new” reaction pathway for the production of superheavy elements.
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[Review] Tieh-Chi Chu and Jeng-Jong Wang; Radioactive Disequilibrium of Uranium and Thorium Nuclide Series in Hot Spring and River Water from Peitou Hot Spring Basin in Taipei, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 1(1), 2000.
The distributions of the naturally occurring radionuclides 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 228Ra, and 226Ra in river and hot spring water within the Peitou hot spring basin at the northern part of Taiwan were studied by using alpha-and gamma-spectrometric methods and liquid scintillation counting method. The respective concentration ranges of 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, and 226Ra in river and hot spring water were 0.80--48, 1.2--51, 0.05--44, 0.09--39, 0.19--342, 3.0--22.5 mBq/L and 2.3--85, 2.9--91, 0.67--73, 1.14--66, 1.01--630, and 4.5--36.5 mBq/L, respectively. In general, the distributions of uranium-series and thorium-series nuclides in river water, hot spring water were all pH dependent. The respective radioactivity ratios of 234U/238U in river and hot spring water are observed to be 1.0--1.5 and 1.03--1.5, however, the radioactivity ratios of 228Th/232Th in river and hot spring water are 1.4--19 and 1.5--8.8, respectively. The high 228Th/232Th activity ratios showed that besides the recoil effect, enrichment of 228Ra to 232Th in the waters was another possible factor causing an excess of 228Th. Because radium may exist as (Pb, Ba, Ra)(SO4)X pseudo-colloid in hot spring water, which is the same as the more famous mineral of Peitou-stone (Hukutolite), therefore, 228Ra and 226Ra are more abundant in the hot spring sediments, of which radioactivities are 18--3010 and 16--230 Bq/kg (dry), respectively.
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[Review] Tomasz Goworek; Positronium as a Probe of Small Free Volumes, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 1(1), 2000.
The relation between free volume size and the lifetime of ortho-Ps trapped in that volume is usually described in the framework of simplified model, proposed by Tao and Eldrup et al. In that model the positronium trap has spherical shape and the potential is rectangular one with infinite depth. In spite of its simplicity in most cases the model gives proper values of o-Ps lifetime and its zero-point energy in the trap. It can be also easily extended toward nonspherical and large-size free volumes. In that last case the population of particle states lying above the zero-point energy has to be taken into account.
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[Review] Wang Xiangyun, Wu Yonghui, Wang Yi, and Liu Yuanfang; Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry in Peking University (PKU), J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 1(1), 2000.
In the past 15 years our research activities covered the following four aspects: (1) Labeling of monoclonal anti-bodies (McAb) with radionuclides. Both direct and indirect labeling methods by using various radionuclides were studied. (2) Designing and synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals used for myocardial imaging. Two types of Tc compounds were intensively studied: BATOs and complexes containing [99mTc N]2+ core and [99mTc=NAr]3+ core. (3) Synthesis and screening of boron- and gadolinium-containing compounds for use in neutron capture therapy. (4) Investigation of the coordination chemistry of Tc.
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[Review] Chai Zhifang; Modern Nuclear Analytical Techniques and Their Applications in China, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 1(1), 2000.
The earliest activities of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in China were much later than those in the developed countries, but since the late fifties a vast progress in the development of NATs has been made. This paper will describe some latest achievements in the field of modern nuclear analytical techniques, including molecular activation analysis, scanning proton microscope, accelerator mass spectrometry, synchrotron radiation-based X-ray analytical techniques, and position sensitive spectrometry, etc. and their applications in environmental, biological, geological, and material science. The analytical quality assurance and related topics, like new type reference materials for microbeam analysis, biological and environmental specimen banking, and biological monitor for environmental quality survey, will be outlined as well.
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[Review] B. F. Myasoedov; Century of Radiochemistry: History and Future, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 1(1), 2000.
Several periods in radiochemistry development history are observed. In the report the sources of radionuclide income into environment are examined including long-lived transuranic elements on the different stages of full nuclear fuel cycle. Radioactive substance contamination analysis is given for different regions of Russia from natural and man-caused sources. Potential danger of long-lived radionuclide and transuranic element presence in the wastes of nuclear fuel cycle plants is shown. Data related with the sequences of nuclear weapon testing on the proving grounds near Semipalatinsk, and Novaya Zemlya are presented. The modern radioecological situation around the reprocessing plant "Mayak", which was constructed more than 40 years ago for the production of plutonium for military purposes, is overviewed. The following topics are considered: lake Karachay; artificial water reservoirs contaminated by radionuclides; solid radioactive wastes and their vitrification. Some new approaches, methods and tools developed at the Vernadsky Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences for determination of different radionuclides in various environmental samples from the impact zone of the facility are discussed. The data on distribution, occurrence forms and migration processes of 90Sr, 137Cs, 237Np, 239Pu, and 241Am in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are presented.
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[Review] S. B. Manohar, B. S. Tomar, and V. K. Manchanda; Radiochemistry in India: An Overview, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 1(1), 2000.
Some of the important aspects of the radiochemical research carried out in India during the past 40 years are presented in this article. The major part of this work was carried out in the field of nuclear fission which has been one of the most important discoveries of the 20th century and in which radiochemists have played the pivotal role. Radiochemical work carried out on mass, charge, and kinetic energy distribution in fission of actinide nuclei by neutron and charged particles has been described. During the past one decade major part of the work carried out is, using medium energy heavy ions in both nuclear fission and nuclear reactions. Recently work has been initiated on neutron activation analysis using single comparative (K0) method. Basic actinide chemistry programme deals with the thermodynamics/kinetics of complexation of these metal ions with novel ligands as extractants viz. cryptands, polyazapolycarboxylate crown ethers, pyrazolones, isoxazolones, sulphoxides, phosphine oxides, and amides. Particular attention has been paid during last two decades to investigate synergism and develop separation procedures for actinides employing solvent extraction, ion exchange, extraction chromatography, and supported liquid membranes. Focus has shifted in recent years to the evaluation of a) N, N dialkyl amides as alternate extractants to TBP in PUREX/THOREX process and b) CMPO/diamides for actinide partitioning from high level waste.
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[Review] Atsushi Shinohara; Formation Process of Pionic Atoms and Their Behavior in Material, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 1(1), 2000.
Exotic atoms are the interesting object as a new probe in material science and a new chemical species in future chemistry. Our group (pAX) has recognized the mesoatomic and mesomolecular phenomena as a subject of chemistry, and continued the experimental study for the capture process of negative pions since 1982. In the recent study, we have investigated the pion capture process mainly in liquid and gas phases, focusing to the behavior of pionic hydrogen atoms. A novel method to measure selectively the pion capture for a particular hydrogen in a molecule revealed the effect of the chemical state of the hydrogen on the transfer process. A proposed model, which combines a LMM model with a transfer process, was useful to wholly understand the capture process observed. The outline of the formation process of pionic atoms and its behavior in material is described briefly, and the main results of our studies are reviewed.
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[Review] Hisaaki Kudo; Nuclear Chemistry in Japan, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 1(1), 2000.
Nuclear chemistry studies in Japan are briefly reviewed. Main topics are concerned with the works related to nuclear fission and discoveries of new radioisotopes. The other works, such as photonuclear reaction, high energy light ion-induced reaction, intermediate energy heavy ion-induced reaction, and neutron-induced reaction, are just outlined. The future plan for transactinide elements is also briefly introduced.
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[Review] Noriyuki Momoshima; Present Research on the Environmental Radioactivity and Its Perspective in Japan, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 1(1), 2000.
Understanding of environmental radioactivity has progressed by investigation of undesirable events: nuclear explosion tests and nuclear accidents. Now the importance of the research on environmental radioactivity has realized widely because of an increasing use of nuclear energy. One of the tops of the current research is construction of models, which explain and predict behavior of radionuclides released to the environment. Parameters of mathematical equations used in the model require reliable values, which must be determined by environmental analysis and laboratory experiments. Development of analytical instruments and techniques would make possible to obtain more reliable values of the parameters.
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[Article] Tetsuo Hashimoto, Hirotomo Hase, Duk-Guen Hong, Hiroki Fujita, and Hajime Katayama; Correlation of Aluminum Hole Centers with Hydrogen Radicals from g-Irradiated Quartz of Different Origins, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 1(1), 2000.
In all quartz samples having different origins, radiation-induced hydrogen radicals (atomic hydrogens) were observed in ESR measurement at 77K in addition to intense Al-centers. An obvious positive correlation was recognized between the hydrogen radical intensities and the reduction of the Al-centers after warming up to room temperature, although there was no clear relationship between hydrogen signals and initial Al-centers at 77K. In isochronal annealing treatments the hydrogen radicals were gradually decreased with increments of temperature and completely disappeared after warming up to room temperature. Similar behavior was shown in the Al-centers, but a few percentages of which were still remained at room temperature. The Al-centers remained gave a linear relation to the blue thermoluminescence (BTL) intensity. We concluded that the hydrogen radicals arising from radiolytic products of OH and molecular water impurities could operate as a "killer" of radiation-induced Al-centers related intimately to emission of BTL in natural quartz.
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[Note] Toshiaki Mitsugashira, Takashi Nakanishi, Riki Seki, and Sadao Kojima; Estimation of Total Fission Events in the JCO Criticality Accident by Passive g-Ray Measurement of 140La in Radioequilibrium with Precursor 140Ba, J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 1(1), 2000.
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